Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Fullerton College Library

Research 101: APA References (7th ed.)

Getting Started With Research at Fullerton College Library

APA References List (7th Edition)

apa manual book coverAPA Reference List: How to Cite Your Sources

Scroll down to the type of source you need to cite. Use the left column to determine what information you need to gather and how to format that element. The right column provides more details and examples. Example citations are provided for that source type under each table.

 

General Formatting Guidelines

APA References: ARTICLES from Journals, Magazines, and Newspapers (10.1)

Print

Author(s). Lastname, Firstinitial., Lastname, Firstinitial, & Lastname, Firstinitial.
(Year, Month Day).

(2021, March 24). or (2020, December). or (2019).

Include month and day, if available. End with a period.

Title of article. Only the first word and proper nouns are capitalized (sentence case). End with a period.
Title of Journal, Magazine, or Newspaper, All main words are capitalized (title case) in italics. End with a comma.
Volume number If available. Do not put a space between the volume number and parenthesis before the issue number.
(issue number), If available, and pagination is not continuous. End with a comma. 
Pages. 

1122-1128. or p. B2. or pp. C1, C3–C4.

If available. For newspapers, include p. and pp. Use an en dash with page ranges. End with a period.

DOI (Digital Object Identifier)

https://doi.org/xxxx

If available, include the DOI whether you are referencing the online or print version. If the DOI is long, you can shorten using the shortDOI service at shortdoi.org. Do not add a period after the DOI.

Online

Include the nondatabase URL if the DOI is not available.

https://xxxx

Do not include the database name or URL unless required by your instructor, in which case use the permalink or stable URL. Links can be shortened so long as they work. Do not add a period after the URL or permalink.

Examples

Blue, L. (2009, August 3). Preventing preemies. Newsweek, 37–40.

Bugos, J. A. (2015). Greasing the skids of the musical mind: Connecting music learning to mind brain education. General Music Today, 29(1), 5–11. http://ezproxy.fcclib.nocccd.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ1074777&site=ehost-live&scope=site 

Cohen, N. (2010, December 6). WikiLeaks, Facebook and perils of oversharing. The New York Timesp. 3. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A243612462/OVIC?u=full44847&sid=OVIC&xid=1f67a6f4

Davis, L. C. (2015, August 31). When mindfulness meets the classroom. The Atlantichttps://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2015/08/mindfulness-education-schools-meditation/402469/

Kortteinen, H., Narhi, V., & Ahnonen, T. (2005). Does IQ matter in adolescents’ reading disability? Learning & Individual Differences19, 257–261. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2009.01.003 

MacVean, M. (2015, February 16). Meditation booms as people seek a way to slow down. Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/health/la-he-c1-meditation-20150216-story.html

Rodriguez, A. (2009, August 10). Pakistani Taliban preys on youth. Los Angeles Times, pp. A1, A15.

APA References: BOOKS (10.2)

Print

Author(s) or Editor(s).

Lastname, Firstinitial., & Lastname, Firstinitial. (Eds).

Add (Eds) if an edited book. End with a period.

(Copyright Year).

(2016).

End with a period.

Title of book: Subtitle of book. Only the first words and proper nouns are capitalized (sentence case), in italics. End with a period.
Editor(s).

(Firstinitial. Lastname, Ed.).

Include if book has author(s) and editor(s) on the book cover. End with a period.

(Translator).

(Firstinitial. Lastname, Trans.).

If work is a translation, include translator. End with a period.

(Edition).

(5th ed.).

If other than first, include edition. End with a period.

Publisher.

University of Chicago Press.

Separate multiple publishers with a semicolon. End with a period.

DOI (Digital Object Identifier)

https://doi.org/xxxx

If available, include the DOI whether you are referencing the online or print version. If the DOI is long, you can shorten using the shortDOI service at shortdoi.org. Do not add a period after the DOI.

Online

Include the nondatabase URL if the DOI is not available.

https://xxxx

Do not include the database name or URL unless required by your instructor, in which case use the permalink or stable URL. Links can be shortened so long as they work. Do not add a period after the URL or permalink.

Republished Work

(Original work year published) (Original work published 1903)

Examples

Kender, S. E. (Ed.). (1996). Crime in America. Wilson.

Kennedy, X. J., & Kennedy, D. M. (2014). The Bedford guide for college writers: With reader,  research manual, and handbook (10th ed.). Bedford/St. Martin's.

London, J. (2004). Call of the wild. http://books.google.com/books (Original work published 1903)

Proust, M. (1929). The captive. (C. K. Scott Moncrieff, Trans.). Modern Library. (Original work published 1923)

Waldinger, R. D. (2015). The cross-border connection: Immigrants, emigrants, and their homelands. Harvard University. http://ezproxy.fcclib.nocccd.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=781911&site=eds-live&scope=site

APA References: CHAPTERS and Articles from Books (10.3)

Print

Author(s) or Editor(s).

Lastname, Firstinitial., &  Lastname, Firstinitial. (Eds.).

End with a period.

(Year of publication).

(2016). or (n.d.).

When an online work is constantly updated, use n.d. and include the retrieval date. End with a period.

Title of article or book chapter.  Only the first word and proper nouns are capitalized (sentence case). End with a period.
Editor(s), 

In S. G. Rogelbert (Ed.),

End with a comma.

Title of book Only the first word and proper nouns are capitalized (sentence case), in italics. There is no punctuation between the book title and first parenthesis. 
(edition, Volume, page numbers).

(2nd ed., Vol. 3, pp. 255–256).

End with a period.

Publisher. 

University of Chicago Press.

If there are multiple publishers, separate with a semicolon. End with a period.

DOI (Digital Object Identifier)

https://doi.org/xxxx

If available, include the DOI whether you are referencing the online or print version. If the DOI is long, you can shorten using the shortDOI service at shortdoi.org. Do not add a period after the DOI.

Online

Include the nondatabase URL if the DOI is not available.

https://xxxx

Do not include the database name or URL unless required by your instructor, in which case use the permalink or stable URL. Links can be shortened so long as they work. Do not add a period after the URL or permalink.

Examples

American Psychological Association. (n.d.) Theory of mind. In APA dictionary of psychology. Retrieved August 24, 2021, from https://dictionary.apa.org/theory-of-mind 

Friedenbach, J. (2016). Involuntary treatment for the mentally ill is dangerous and harmful. In N.Berlatsky (Ed.), Opposing viewpoints. Mental illness. GreenhavenPress. (Reprinted from 'Laura's Law' a Looming Disaster for Mentally Ill, San FranciscoExaminer, 2014, June 8). http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/EJ3010154295/OVIC?u=full44847&xid=01bfbd66

United Nations, International Organization for Migration. (2013). Migration trends: Comparing the four pathways. World migration report 2013: Migrant well-being and development (pp. 52-84). United Nations Publications.

Waclawski, J. (2007). Focus groups. In S. G. Rogelbert (Ed.), Encyclopedia of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 255–256). Sage Publications.

Wexler, B. (2016). Mental Health and Illness. In Information Plus Reference Series. Health and Wellness (2016 ed., pp. 147–170). Gale. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX3645000014/GVRL?u=full44847&sid=GVRL&xid=b8044840

Technical, Government, and Research REPORTS (10.4)

Report

Author(s) or Group Name.

Lastname, Firstinitial., & Lastname, Firstinitial. (Eds.).

End with a period.

(Year, Month Date).

(2016). or (n.d.).

If no date, write (n.d.). End with a period.

Title of report

Only the first word and proper nouns are capitalized (sentence case), in italics. End with a period unless followed by a report number or description.

(Report Number).

(Report No. xxx), if included.

End with a period unless description follows.

[Description].

[Press release]. or [Policy brief].

Optional element for gray literature. End with a period.

Location

Publisher.

Government Printing Office.

Omit if the publisher is also the author. End with a period.

DOI or URL

https://xxxx

Links can be shortened so long as they work. Do not add a period after the DOI or URL.

Examples

American Psychological Association, Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. (2007). Report of the APA Task Force on the sexualization of girls. http://www.apa.org/pi/women/programs/girls/reportfull.pdf

Masson-Delmotte, V., Zhai, P.,  Pirani, A.,  Connors, S. L.,  Péan, C.,  Berger, S., Caud, N., Chen, Y., Goldfarb, L., Gomis, M. I., Huang, M., Leitzell, M. K., Lonnoy, E., Matthews, J. B. R., Maycock, T. K., Waterfield, T., Yelekçi, O., Yu, R., & Zhou, B. (Eds.). (2021). Climate change 2021: The physical science basis (Report No. 6) [Summary for policy makers]. Cambridge University Press. https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar6/wg1/downloads/report/IPCC_AR6_WGI_Citation.pdf

National Alliance to End Homelessness. (2015). Ending homelessness for unaccompanied youth age 18-24. http://www.endhomelessness.org/page/-/files/Ending%20Homelessness%20for% 20Older%20Youth_Final.pdf

United Nations Environment Programme, Coordinating Body on the Seas of East Asia. (2019). A human rights based approach to preventing plastic pollution (Issue Brief 01). https://www.sea-circular.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/UNEP-COBSEA-SEA-circular_Issue-Brief-01_A-human-rights-based-approach-to-preventing-plastic-pollution.pdf

U.S. Senate Committee on Environmental and Public Works. (2021, July 21). Opening statement of ranking member Capito for hearing on cybersecurity threats to our nation's infrastructure [Press release]. https://www.epw.senate.gov/public/index.cfm/press-releases-republican?ID=C08CB3C7-12A4-4F2C-928D-5F7610597836

Online VIDEOS, PODCASTS, and SOCIAL MEDIA (10.13 & 10.15)

Author or Group.

Lastname, Firstinitial. or Name of Group.

Lastname, Firstinitial [@username]. or Name of Group [@username].

(Year, Month Date).

(2020, September 5). or (n.d.).

If no date, write (n.d.). End with a period.

Title of the work or post content

Title of work: Only the first word and proper nouns are capitalized (sentence case), in italics.

Social media posts: Copy the first 20 words/emojis of the post, keeping the original spelling, capitalization, hashtags, links, and emojis (or emoji names between brackets). See unicode.org for list of emoji names and emojis.

[Format description].

[Thumbnail link] or [Image attached] 

[Video]. or [Audio podcast]. or [Tweet]. or [Photograph]. or [Online forum post]

End with a period.

Site Name or Publisher.

TED Conferences. or YouTube. or NPR. or Twitter. or Instagram. 

End with a period.

URL

https://xxxx

Links can be shortened so long as they work. Do not add a period after the URL

Examples

Chamberliin, M., & Holliday, S. B. (2020, August 12). Elevating Equity in Los Angeles Juvenile and Criminal Justice Reform. [Blog post]. The Rand Blog. https://www.rand.org/blog/2020/08/elevating-equity-in-los-angeles-juvenile-and-criminal.html 

Russell, C. (2013, January). Looks aren’t everything. Believe me, I’m a model [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KM4Xe6Dlp0Y

U.N. Environment Programme [@UNEP]. (2021, August 24). Tonnes of waste generated in cities Cityscape on Twitter Twemoji 13.1 every year: Keycap Digit Two on Twitter Twemoji 13.1 Keycap Digit Zero on Twitter Twemoji 13.1 Keycap Digit Zero on Twitter Twemoji 13.1 Keycap Digit Zero on Twitter Twemoji 13.1 - 680 million, Keycap Digit Two on Twitter Twemoji 13.1 Keycap Digit Zero on Twitter Twemoji 13.1 Keycap Digit One on Twitter Twemoji 13.1 Keycap Digit Two on Twitter Twemoji 13.1 - 1.3 [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/UNEP/status/1430350482967572480

WEB PAGES (10.16)

Author(s) or Organization.

Lastname, Firstinitial., & Lastname, Firstinitial.

If the author and site name are the same, do not include the site name in the citation.

(Year, Month Date).

(2016). or (n.d.).

If no date, write (n.d.). End with a period.

Title of web page. Only the first word and proper nouns are capitalized (sentence case), in italics. End with a period.
Site Name or Publisher.

Mayo Clinic.

End with a period.

URL

https://xxxx

Links can be shortened so long as they work. Do not add a period after the URL.

Note: When referencing an entire website, it is enough to include the website title and URL in the text of your paper. You do not need to include the citation in the reference list as well.

 

Examples

Lewis, N., & Flagg, A. (2020, October 27). What 2,392 incarcerated people think about #DefundThePolice. The Marshall Project. https://www.themarshallproject.org/2020/10/27/what-2-392-incarcerated-people-think-about-defundthepolice

Vogels, E. A. (2021, July 20). 56% of Americans support more regulation of major technology companies. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2021/07/20/56-of-americans-support-more-regulation-of-major-technology-companies/

Citation Management Tools

APA Sources