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Fullerton College Library

Research 101: MLA Works Cited (9th ed.)

Getting Started With Research at Fullerton College Library

MLA Works Cited (9th ed.)

MLA Works Cited: How to Cite Your Sources

The ninth edition of the MLA Handbook breaks down sources to their core elements and containers. Scroll down to the type of source you need to cite: periodical articles (newspapers, magazines, and journals); books; works in anthologies, references, or collections; web pages, and other source types. 

 

General Formatting Guidelines

PERIODICAL ARTICLES (Newspapers, Magazines, and Journals)

Core Elements: The Article

Author(s)

Last Name, First Name, and First Name Last Name.

Last Name, First Name, et al.  (for three or more authors)

End with a period.

Article Title          

"Article Title: Subtitle."

Enclose the article title between quotation marks and end with a period. Capitalize all words except articles (i.e., a, an, the), prepositions (e.g., with, of through), or conjunctions (e.g., and, or, but), unless it is the first word in the title or subtitle.

Container 1: The Periodical (journal, magazine, or newspaper)

Title of Periodical

Periodical Title: Subtitle,

Italicize the title of the periodical and end with a comma. Capitalize all words except articles (i.e., a, an, the), prepositions (e.g., with, of through), or conjunctions (e.g., and, or, but), unless it is the first word in the title or subtitle.

Volume Number

vol. 2,

No caps. End with a comma.

Issue Number

no. 4,

No caps. End with a comma.

Publication Date

2016, or Spring 2016, or 14 Aug. 2016,

Abbreviate months with more than 4 letters. End with a comma.

Page Number or Range of Page Numbers

p. 6. or pp. 69-88.

End with a period.

Container 2: The Database or Website

Name of Database or Website         

Name, 

Italicize name and end with a comma.

DOI, Permalink, or URL

https://doi.org.

Include the https:// with DOIs. End with a period.

search-ebscohost-com.ezproxy.fcclib.nocccd.edu/login.aspx.

Truncate permalinks and URLs when it is longer than the rest of the entry, making sure to include the host. Exclude http:// from the URL. End with a period.

somewebsite.org.

Exclude http:// from the URL unless you want to create a hyperlink. End with a period.

Accessed Date

Accessed 24 Mar. 2021.

Optional element. End with a period.

Examples

Baron, Naomi S. "Redefining Reading: The Impact of Digital Communications Media." PMLA, vol. 128, no. 1, Jan. 2013, pp. 193-200.

Felver, Joshua C., et al. "Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Reduces Psychological Distress in College Students." College Student Journal, vol. 52, no. 3, Fall 2018, pp. 291-298. EBSCOhost,ezproxy.fcclib.nocccd.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=pbh&AN=132341816&site=eds-live&scope=site.

Taylor, Timothy. "Universal Basic Income--Combined with What Else?" Newstex Blogs Conversable Economist, 10 Sept. 2019. NexisUni.advance.lexis.com/api/document?ollection=news&id=urn:contentItem:5S17-PC01-JCMN-Y1RJ-00000-00&1516831.

Thompson, Derek. "Mass Shootings in America Are Spreading Like a Disease." The Atlantic, 6 Nov. 2017, theatlantic.com/health/archive/2017/11/americas-mass-shooting-epidemic-contagious-545078/.

Williams, Joy. "Rogue Territory." The New York Times Book Review, 9 Nov. 2014, pp.1+.

 

BOOKS

Core Elements: The Book

Corporate Author or Organization Name.

Last Name, First Name, and First Name Last Name.

Last Name, First Name, et al. (for three or more authors)

End with a period.

Book Title

Title: Subtitle.

Italicize the title and end with a period. Capitalize all words except articles (i.e., a, an, the), prepositions (e.g., with, of through), or conjunctions (e.g., and, or, but), unless it is the first word in the title or subtitle.

Other Contributors

Edited by First Name Last Name,

Translated by First Name Last Name,

Capitalize the first letter, and end with a comma.

Edition

3rd ed. or rev. ed. (for revised edition)

Capitalize if edition follows a period.

Publisher

Princeton UP,

Use / between multiple publishers. Omit business words and their abbreviations (e.g., Co., Corp., Inc., Ltd.). For        university presses, use the abbreviation UP. End with a comma.

Publication Year

2019.

End with a period.

Container 1: The Database or Website

Name of Database or Website eBook Collection (EBSCOhost),

Italicize name and end with a comma.

DOI or URL

https://doi.org

Include the https:// with DOIs. End with a period.

search-ebscohost-com.ezproxy.fcclib.nocccd.edu/login.aspx

Truncate permalinks and URLs when it is longer than the rest of the entry, making sure to include the host. Exclude http:// from the URL. End with a period.

somewebsite.org

Exclude http:// from the URL unless you want to create a hyperlink. End with a period.

Accessed Date Accessed 25 Mar. 2021.

Optional element. End with a period.

Examples

American Allergy Association. Allergies in Children. Random House, 1998.

Jacobs, Alan. The Pleasure of Reading in an Age of Distraction. Oxford UP, 2011.

Pevear, Richard, and Larissa Volokhonsky, translators. Crime and Punishment. By Feodor Dostoevsky, Vintage Books, 1993. 

Sampson, Geoffrey. The "Language Instinct" Debate. Rev. ed. Continuum, 2005. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost), ezproxy.fcclib.nocccd.edu/login?url=https://search-ebscohost-com.ezproxy.fcclib.nocccd.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=378086&site=eds-live&scope=site&ebv=EB&ppid=pp_Cover. Accessed 24 Mar. 2021.

Wysocki, Anne Frances, et al. Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition. Utah State UP, 2004.

Works in ANTHOLOGIES, REFERENCES, or COLLECTIONS

Core Elements: The Chapter or Article

Author(s) Last Name, First Name, and First Name Last Name.
Title of Essay or Chapter

"Article Title: Subtitle."

Enclose the article title between quotation marks and end with a period. Capitalize all words except articles (i.e., a, an, the), prepositions (e.g., with, of through), or conjunctions (e.g., and, or, but), unless it is the first word in the title or subtitle.

Container 1: The Book

Title of Book

Title,

Italicize title and end with a comma.

Other Contributors

edited by Firstname Lastname and Firstname Lastname,

translated by Firstname Lastname,

End with a comma.

Edition

3rd ed. or rev. ed. (for revised edition)

Capitalize if edition follows a period.

Publisher

Princeton UP,

Use / between multiple publishers. Omit business words and their abbreviations (e.g., Co., Corp., Inc., Ltd.). For university presses, use the abbreviation U. End with a comma.

Publication Date

2019,

End with a comma.

Location

 

pp. 227-41.

Essay or chapter page range. End with a period.

Container 2: The Database or Website

Name of Database or Website,

Gale eBooks,

Italicize name and end with a comma.

DOI, Permalink, or URL.

https://doi.org

Include the https:// with DOIs. End with a period.

search-ebscohost-com.ezproxy.fcclib.nocccd.edu/login.aspx

Truncate permalinks and URLs when it is longer than the rest of the entry, making sure to include the host. Exclude http:// from the URL. End with a period.

somewebsite.org

Exclude http:// from the URL unless you want to create a hyperlink. End with a period.

Accessed Date Accessed 25 Mar. 2021.

Optional element. End with a period.

Examples

Burns, Robert. "Red, Red Rose." 100 Best-Loved Poems, edited by Philip Smith, Dover, 1995, p. 26.

​Dewar, James A., and Peng Hwa Ang. "The Cultural Consequences of Printing and the Internet." Agent of Change: Print Culture Studies after Elizabeth L. Eisenstein, edited by Sabrina Alcorn Baron et al., U of Massachusetts P / Center for the Book, Library of Congress, 2007, pp. 365-77.

Gupta, Hemangini. "Modern Love." Gender: Love, edited by Jennifer C. Nash, Macmillan Reference USA, 2016, pp. 227-41. Macmillan Interdisciplinary Handbooks. Gale eBooks, link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX3635400029/GVRL?u=full44847&sid=bookmark-GVRL&xid=26fd22b5. Accessed 23 Aug. 2021.

"Ideology." The American Heritage Dictionary. 3rd ed., 1997.

Thoreau, Henry David. “A Winter Walk.” Natural History Essays, Gibbs M. Smith, Jan. 1989, pp. 51–71. Literary Reference Center Plus (EBSCOhost), search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=lkh&AN=125166268&site=eds-live&scope=site.

WEB PAGES

Core Elements: The Web Page or Social Media Post

Author(s)

Lastname, Firstname, and Firstname Lastname.

Lastname, Firstname [online handle]. 

Include the author's online handle if it differs from the account name or the URL is not included. End with a period.

"Web Page Title."

"Web Page Title: Subtitle."

Enclose the web page title between quotation marks and end with a period. Capitalize all words except articles (i.e., a, an, the), prepositions (e.g., with, of through), or conjunctions (e.g., and, or, but), unless it is the first word in the title or subtitle.

"Social media content." or Social media description of post.

Place social media content between quotation marks in place of the web page title. If there is no title or text, include a description without quotation marks. End with a period.

Container 1: The Website

Title of Website

Title: Subtitle,

Italicize title and end with a comma.

Sponsor or Publisher

Publisher,

If different from website, include the affiliated organization or institution, often found next to the © sign. Use / between multiple publishers. End with a comma.

Publication date, 

e.g., 2016, Spring 2016, 14 Aug. 2016, or n.d. (if no date given)

End with a comma.

URL

somewebsite.org

Exclude http:// from the URL unless you want to create a hyperlink. End with a period.

Access Date Accessed 20 Oct. 2019.
Optional element. Useful if the page is likely to change in the future. End with a period

Examples

California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection [@calfire]. Video of fire in El Dorado county. Instagram.

"Declaration of Independence: A Transcription." National Archives, 1 Nov. 2015, archives.gove/founding-docs/declaration-transcript.

Harris, Charles. "Teenie." Woman in Paisley Shirt behind Counter in Record Store. Teenie Harris Archive, Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh, teenie.cmoa.org/interactive/index.html#date08.

Hollmichel, Stefanie. "The Reading Brain: Differences between Digital and Print." So Many Books, 25 Apr. 2013, somanybooksblog.com/2013/04/25/the-readings-brain-differences-between-digital-and-print.

Nancheria, Aparna [@aparnapkin]. "anxiety: u up?" Twitter, 21 Oct. 2019, 8:32 p.m.,  twitter.com/aparnapkin/status/1186500622301966336. 

Reichart, Elizabeth, and Deborah Drew. "By the Numbers: The Economic, Social and Environmental Impacts of 'Fast Fashion,'" World Resources Institute, 10 Jan. 2019. wri.org/blog/2019/01/numbers-economic-social-and-environmental-impacts-fast-fashion. Accessed 20 Nov. 2019.

 

OTHER SOURCE TYPE EXAMPLES

Fresh Air. Narrated by Terry Gross, National Public Radio, 20 May 2008. Transcript. (unexpected type of work)

Graban, Tarez Samra. "Towards a Reminine Ironic: Understanding Irony in the Oppositional Discourse of Women from the Early Modern and Modern Periods." Dissertation, Purdue University, 2006. (unpublished dissertation or master's thesis)

Human Nature. Directed by Adam Bolt, PBS, 2020. Netflix, netflix.com. (streaming movie)

Seek, Hayden. E-mail to the author. 16 Aug. 2020. (email)

"Under the Gun." Pretty Little Liars, season 4, episode 6, ABC Family, 16 July 2013. Huluhulu.com/watch/511318. (video)

United States, Congress, House, Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. Al-Qaeda: The Many Faces of an Islamist Extremist Threat. Government Printing Office, 2006. 109th Congress, 2nd session, House Report 615. (U.S. Congressional bill, report, or resolution)

United States, Government Accountability Office. Climate Change: EPA and DOE Should Do More to Encourage Progress Under Two Voluntary Programs. Government Printing Office, 2006. (government publication)

Your Rights Under California Welfare Programs. California Department of Social Services, 2007. (pamphlet)

Works-Cited Elements

Core Elements

Author(s).

Title of Source.
(if a stand-alone work, like a novel)

"Title of Source."
(if part of a larger work, like a journal article)

Container 1

Title of Container, 
Other Contributors,
Version,
Number,
Publisher,
Publication date,
Location.

Container 2

Title of Container,
Other Contributors,
Version,
Number,
Publisher,
Publication date,
Location.

Optional

Access date. Accessed 9 Nov. 2019.
Unexpected type of work. Transcript.

 

Citing Secondary Sources

Secondary or Indirect Sources

When another source is cited in an article that you would like to use, track down and use the original source whenever possible. Reading research study summaries in news and other sources can help form a general understanding of the findings; however, news sources often embellish or exaggerate findings to draw readers attention and interest. Locate the original source to check for accuracy and cite that original source to strengthen your own essay. If you can't locate the referenced article or book, then cite the quote as an indirect source. 

citing indirect sources from the owl at purdue

Screenshot taken from MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics from the OWL at Purdue.

MLA Sources

Citation Management Tools